The Real Signals

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Примеры готовых предложений с real signals из вдохновляющих источников на английском языке

The device works by sending out radio signals to phones within its coverage area, preventing the phones from decoding the network’s real signals .

We also demonstrate its superior performance on real signals .

The proposal is validated and tested using both synthetic and real signals .

Secondly, a set of real signals obtained with a prototype have been used.

The implementation on target hardware requires the replacement of simulation inputs and outputs by real signals .

Thus, the overall FFT memory demand is 4N for real signals .

Quadrature signal processing is, in practice, implemented with parallel real signals and coefficients.

Nevertheless, destriping would distort and reduce real signals while suppressing stripes.

At the second stage, the proposed method has been applied on real signals .

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Что такое Ludwig?

Ludwig – это первая поисковая система по предложениям, помогающая лучше писать по-английски, с опорой на примеры и контекст из надежных источников.

8 миллионов пользователей Ludwig — это тысячи профессиональных переводчиков, редакторов, авторов и научных исследователей из крупных учебных заведений!

Когда мне кажется, что я не могу доверять своей голове на 100%, Ludwig очень кстати. Он помогает переводить и править тексты быстрее, и качественнее.

All about Linux signals

Table of Contents:

  • All about Linux signals
  • Introduction
  • What is signaled, signal handlers
  • Handling specific signals: SIGCHLD, SIGBUS, SIGSEGV, SIGABRT
  • What happens when a process receives a signal, system call interruption
  • Blocking signals
  • Waiting for a signal
  • Sending signals
  • Real-time signals
  • Signals and fork()
  • Signals and threads
  • Other uses of signals
  • That’s not everything!

Real-time signals

Whats the difference between RT signals and standard signals? There are couple:

  • More than one RT signal can be queued for the process if it has the signal blocked while someone sends it. In standard signals only one of a given type is queued, the rest is ignored.
  • Order of delivery of RT signal is guaranteed to be the same as the sending order.
  • PID and UID of sending process is written to si_pid and si_uid fields of siginfo_t . For more information see section about Real time signals in signal(7).

Who uses POSIX realtime signals and why?

I am not being flip I really don’t get it. I just read a whole bunch of material on them and I can’t figure out the use case. I am not talking talking so much about the API for which the advantages over things like signal() are clear enough. Rather it seems RT signals are meant to be user space generated but to what end? The only use seems to be a primitive IPC but everything points to them being a lousy form of IPC (e.g. awkward, limited information, not particularly efficient, etc).

So where and how are they used?

4 Answers 4

First of all, note that Ben’s answer is correct. As far as I can tell, the whole purpose of realtime signals in POSIX is as a realtime delivery mechanism for AIO, message queue notifications, timer expirations, and application-defined signals (both internal and inter-process).

With that said, signals in general are a really bad way to do things:

  • Signal handlers are asynchronous, and unless you ensure they do not interrupt an async-signal-unsafe function, they can only use async-signal-safe functions, which severely limits what they can do.
  • Signal handlers are global state. A library cannot use signals without a contract with the calling program regarding which signals it’s allowed to use, whether it’s allowed to make them syscall-interrupting, etc. And in general, global state is just A Bad Thing.
  • If you use sigwait (or Linux signalfd extension) rather than signal handlers to process signals, they’re no better than other IPC/notification mechanisms, and still potentially worse.

Asynchronous IO is much better accomplished by ignoring the ill-designed POSIX AIO API and just creating a thread to perform normal blocking IO and call pthread_cond_signal or sem_post when the operation finishes. Or, if you can afford a little bit of performance cost, you can even forward the just-read data back to yourself over a pipe or socketpair, and have the main thread process asynchronously-read regular files with select or poll just like you would sockets/pipes/ttys.

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