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The Saudi Arabian option

As development is a dynamic process, important factors associated with that process, such as population growth, the presence of a large number of guest workers, and the phenomenal industrial growth, have begun to place a strain on many segments of the kingdom’s basic physical infrastructure. This situation coincides with tightened government spending resulting from reduced income. As a consequence, much of the new expansion will have to be financed to a large extent by the private sector, and the resulting services will have to be paid for by the users. This expectation is in harmony with the strategic objectives of the sixth development plan which calls, among other things, for:

continued encouragement of private sector participation in socio-economic development;

continued restructuring of the kingdom’s economy through diversification of the economic base, particularly through emphasising industry;

completion of infrastructure projects necessary to achieve overall development, and achievement of economic and social integration among the GCC countries.

To achieve the objective of increasing the role of the private sector in the national economy, the government has announced several guidelines.

The most important ones of which are:

Attract foreign investment in joint ventures or individually in large capital-intensive projects that use advanced technology.

Expand the utilisation of private sector capital in financing more and more government projects.

Expand the offset programme to include large civilian projects, while ensuring that projects under this programme make effective contribution to the transfer of advanced technology and the development of Saudi manpower.

Future infrastructure expansion

Within these guidelines, new expansion projects are being planned:

Further expansion of the telecommunication sector is now being implemented with the addition of 1.5 million new lines and 200,000 subscribed mobile system. The cost of this project is more than SR 15,750 million ($4,200 million). This expansion project is the first large civilian project to incorporate an offset programme component.

Saudi Arabian Airlines fleet modernisation is underway with the recent SR 28,000 million ($7,500 million) order for new aircraft.

The infrastructure in both Jubail and Yanbu are now saturated. During the next seven years, the expected expansion in the industrial infrastructure in these two cities alone is as follows:

Increased production of desalinated water from 192,000 cubic metres a day (cm/d) to 351,000 cm/d.

Increase of seawater cooling capacity from 530,000 cubic metres an hour (cm/h) to 1,053,000 cm/h.

Increase of industrial sewage from 48,000 cm/d to 91,000 cm/d.

Increase in electric power from 1,700 MW to 4,065 MW.

The expected cost of such expansion in Jubail and Yanbu falls in the range of SR 6,000 million-8,000 million ($1,600 million2,130 million). In fact, the need for such an expansion in the infrastructure is so urgent that some new projects and extensions of many existing ones are solely dependent on it.

The situation in the other eight industrial estates all over the kingdom is similar.

It has been forecast that the electric power will increase from about 20,000 MW in 1995 to about 28,000 MW in 2000 and to about 59,000 MW in 2020. With a country as widespread as Saudi Arabia, this demand forecast translates into extensive generation, transmission, and distribution facilities to bring the electric energy to the final user.

The cost for these facilities is estimated to be around SR 138,000 million ($36,800 million) during 1995-2000 and SR 80,000 million ($21,300 million) during 2001-2005, and a total investment of about SR 438,000 million ($117,000 million) up to 2020.

What is needed-the elements?

From the above examples, it is clear that the finance requirements, and consequently the private sector business opportunities, are enormous. The question of the source of finance is much easier to answer than the question of how to finance.

The existing liquidity of the Saudi private sector is estimated to be SR 150,000 million ($40,000 million). So, there is no shortage of money. Investors always focus on two fundamental factors: profitability of the venture and security of their investment. By and large, profitability of a venture may easily be determined, especially in the free market economies of the GCC. However, security of the investment often involves the government and its agencies. The record of Saudi Arabia and other GCC countries in ensuring the safety of foreign capital is impeccable. In fact, Saudi Arabia’s industrialisation is hailed worldwide as a model for ideal joint venturing. This also applies to the Saudi private sector. This leads to a situation in which we have a world flush with capital, investors looking for opportunities and proven partners looking for funds. The picture that emerges is a very positive one. The more difficult question is regarding the modality of financing.

What is needed-the modality?

The build-operate-transfer (BOT) mode of financing has been hailed as the standard financing scheme for executing physical infrastructure. Indeed, many developing countries have gained more experience than developed countries in utilising this funding method. We in Saudi Arabia are considering this route for some infrastructure expansion such as construction of roads. However, we are also experimenting with other modalities of financing. I give some examples:

The Royal Commission for Jubail & Yanbu is proposing the formation of a utility company to operate, maintain, and expand the existing utilities to meet the Royal Commission demand forecasts for the industries and the communities in Jubail and Yanbu. Services will be rendered on a commercial basis. The new company plans to borrow funds for the utility projects, which will be paid back through revenues guaranteed by the utilities themselves. The partners in this company may include industrial establishments in both cities as well as private investors, both national and international. Partners may themselves take equity positions in this utility company.

A power plant already under construction near Riyadh will have generation capacity of 1,200 MW. To assist in the financing of Power Plant 9 and other utility expansion projects, a special consumer charge of five halloos per kW hour for consumption in excess of 2,000 kW hour per month is being imposed. Additionally, payments have been spread over six years, although the project is slated to be completed within three-and-a-half years.

The financing scheme of the 2,400-MW expansion of the Ghazlan power plant is being discussed. Interest from regional as well as international financing institutions has been very impressive and more encouraging than otherwise reported.

I believe that in Saudi Arabia we will be exploring more models for financing infrastructure projects and learning from the experience of other countries, while at the same time knowing well that each case has its own peculiarities that may dictate the choice of financing model.

2020/2020 Hospital projects in the MENA region

The healthcare sector in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region is witnessing a phase of significant growth. A recent report by Fitch Solutions suggests that that the MENA region’s healthcare market is projected to grow from US$ 185.5 billion in 2020 to US$ 243.6 billion in 2023.

The report will give you insights into the top hospital projects planned in the MENA region.

View the report to find out more

View report

Market synopsis

The healthcare sector in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region is witnessing a phase of significant growth. A recent report by Fitch Solutions suggests that that the MENA region’s healthcare market is projected to grow from US$ 185.5 billion in 2020 to US$ 243.6 billion with an 11.7% compound annual growth rate (CAGR) at constant exchange rates through to 2023. MENA’s healthcare market will post a five-year CAGR of 6.6% in US dollar terms.

The report suggests that urbanisation, ageing demographics and a rising burden of chronic diseases will rapidly boost the demand for healthcare in the MENA region. With governments attempting to diversify their economies and reduce their vulnerability to oil price volatility, the private sector is likely to take on some of the healthcare burden, including projects through public-private partnerships. In line with these predictions, Al Masah Capital data suggests that the MENA healthcare market will be worth US$ 144 billion by 2020, while the private sector’s share in healthcare spending is expected to reach 33% by 2020.

Facts about MENA healthcare sector:

  • Healthcare market to be worth US$ 144 billion by 2020 and US$ 243.6 billion by 20203
  • Healthcare market to grow at CAGR of 11.7% through to 2023
  • Private sector’s share in healthcare spending is expected to reach 33% by 2020
  • Shortage of physicians could rise to 150,000 by 2020
  • Medical device market to grow at a CAGR of 9.3% between 2020-2023
  • Medical technology market set to grow

(Source: Fitch Solutions/ Al Masah Capital Research)

Drivers in the MENA healthcare market:

  • Growing burden of non-communicable diseases
  • Population growth and rapid urbanisation
  • Changing focus from curative care to preventative care
  • Adoption of mandatory health insurance
  • Increasing importance of Public-Private Partnerships
  • Smart application of modern technology
  • Adoption of integrated care models
  • Opportunities in areas of specialised care, rehabilitation and long-term care
  • Medical tourism as an integral part of economic diversification plans

Top hospital projects in the MENA region

United Arab Emirates

The United Arab Emirates (UAE) government is extensively expanding and upgrading its healthcare system to develop a robust world-class healthcare infrastructure. According to Business Monitor International, healthcare expenditure in the UAE reached US$ 17 billion in 2020 and is expected to rise to US$ 21.3 billion by 2021. Overall, healthcare spending is projected to account for 4.6% of a country’s GDP by 2026 from 4.2% in 2020.

Meanwhile, given the increasing need for care, Alpen Capital projects that the requirement for beds in the country will reach 14,969 in 2022, representing a demand for 2,069 new beds. This demand is being mitigated by the 700 healthcare projects worth US$ 60.9 billion under various stages of development.

Burjeel Medical City, Abu Dhabi
City: Abu Dhabi
Project Cost: US$ 381 million
Size: 1 million sqm
Beds: 400
Owner: VPS Healthcare Group
Main Contractor: NSCC International Limited
Consultant: Society Technology House
Project Development Consultant: AMS
Project Completion: Q4 2020

Burjeel Medical City, part of Mohammed Bin Zayed City, is a 92,903 sqm tertiary care complex on the Abu Dhabi-Dubai highway. Burjeel Medical City is being developed by Abu Dhabi’s Burjeel Hospital, part of the VPS Healthcare Group.

When operational, the 400 bed main hospital, made up for four towers, will be equipped with specialised departments like oncology, acute care, long-term care and wellness as well as air ambulance service. It will also include an advanced imaging department, an emergency department, endoscopy, a rehabilitation centre with prosthetics & orthotics services, outpatient clinics and a large retail area. It will also have long-term care villas, an administrative building and a mosque.

Thumbay Hospital Dubai Expansion, Dubai
City: Dubai
Project Cost: N/A
Size: 13,000 sqm
Beds: 300
Owner: Thumbay Group
Main Contractor: Thumbay Builders
Project Completion: TBC

Thumbay Hospital Dubai has signed an expansion project with Thumbay Builders, fora substantial expansion of its facilities. The expansion includes the addition of over 13,000 sqm of built-up area by expanding the existing ground and first-floor areas, as well as the addition of a new four-storey building with advanced facilities. New inpatient rooms, OPD clinics, treatment rooms and dental clinics would be added to the existing building. A new Cath Lab, VIP patient room, ICUs and CCUs would also be added.
The new building would house a crèche, mortuary, pharmacy, restaurant, VIP lounge, day care beds, Standard/Deluxe/VIP patient rooms, women’s consultation rooms, LDRs, NICU, Well Baby Nursery and isolation rooms. The project also involves the expansion of the hospital’s parking facility and the addition of service areas and children’s play area. The project will be completed in phases.

Sheikh Khalifa Central Hospital, Fujairah

City: Fujairah
Project cost: US$ 235 million
Size: 57,800 sqm
Beds: 300
Owner: Ministry of Presidential Affairs
Consultants: CC Group
Project completion: Q2 2020

The project’s scope of work consists of a hospital building located at Al Faseel, Fujairah. The hospital has been made to hold growth from the initial 205 beds to an optimal amount of 300 beds, 24 hours service to patients, 11 specialised departments, outpatient clinics and a 32 bed emergency ward, three-storey rehabilitation centre housed in a separate building and 673 parking spots.

The hospital has a Trauma and Accident Department (ER), Inpatient Wards, Intensive Care Units (ICU), Department of Maternity and Premature Delivery, Department of Burn Unit, Department of Surgical and Internal Medicine, Radiology Department, Laboratory and Blood Bank Department, Department of Anesthesiology and Recovery Department, Operations Theatre Department, Cardiac Catheter Department, Endoscopy / Cystoscopy Department, Supporting Service Departments, and Outpatient Clinics.

Sheikh Khalifa Central Hospital, Fujairah

City: Fujairah
Project cost: US$ 235 million
Size: 57,800 sqm
Beds: 300
Owner: Ministry of Presidential Affairs
Consultants: CC Group
Project completion: Q2 2020

The project’s scope of work consists of a hospital building located at Al Faseel, Fujairah. The hospital has been made to hold growth from the initial 205 beds to an optimal amount of 300 beds, 24 hours service to patients, 11 specialised departments, outpatient clinics and a 32 bed emergency ward, three-storey rehabilitation centre housed in a separate building and 673 parking spots.

The hospital has a Trauma and Accident Department (ER), Inpatient Wards, Intensive Care Units (ICU), Department of Maternity and Premature Delivery, Department of Burn Unit, Department of Surgical and Internal Medicine, Radiology Department, Laboratory and Blood Bank Department, Department of Anesthesiology and Recovery Department, Operations Theatre Department, Cardiac Catheter Department, Endoscopy / Cystoscopy Department, Supporting Service Departments, and Outpatient Clinics.

Long Term Care Facility Health Project, Al Mamzar

City: Dubai
Project cost: N/A
Size: 157,935 sqm
Beds: 120
Owners: Dubai Health Authority
Contractors: Eng. Adnan Saffarini Office (construction supervision)
Consultants: OBE Architects
Project completion: TBC

The Dubai Health Authority long-term care facility project covers the construction of a G+1 nursing home facility spread over a land area of 57,242.21 sqm covering a builtup area of 15,7935.2 sqm including 10,000-seat theatre and other related facilities. The centre, which will be located at the Seniors’ Happiness Centre complex, will cater to the needs of long-term care patients and will provide them with a positive environment to promote healing. There is a link to the three main towers by a concourse, which is covered by a stunning glass roof linking the project’s two main elements together.

Saudi German Hospital Al Marjan, Ras Al Khaimah

City: Ras Al Khaimah
Project cost: N/A
Size: N/A
Beds: 100
Owner: Middle East Healthcare Company
Main Contractor: TBC
Project Completion: H2 2020

Saudi German Hospital has signed an agreement to develop a 100 bed specialty hospital on Al Marjan Island, in the Emirate of Ras Al Khaimah.

The planned hospital will offer a range of healthcare services, including medical, rehabilitation, and cosmetic. The hospital will offer seven specialties, Saudi General Hospital Group said in a statement, adding that by 2020, this number will go up to 13. According to Construction Week, the proposed expansion will also see an increase in the number of beds and the headcount of the hospital’s medical and nursing teams.

Danat Al Emarat Hospital for Women and Children – Phase 2, Abu Dhabi

City: Abu Dhabi
Project cost: US$ 81.6 million
Size: N/A
Beds: 100
Owner: UEMedical
Architects: HKS, Amar Golden Design
Main Contractor: TBC
Project Completion: Mid-2020

The second phase of the Danat Al Emarat Hospital for Women and Children includes the construction of a new tower with a capacity of 100 beds. The new tower will be adjacent to the current hospital building located in Abu Dhabi Gate City and will be operational by mid-2020.

With the completion of the second tower, the total number of hospital beds will increase to 225 beds covering various specialties. The number of beds at the NICU will double to 40 beds. Paediatric subspecialties, including paediatric orthopaedics, paediatric gastroenterology, paediatric pulmonology and paediatric neurology, in collaboration with the renowned The Hospital for Sick Children (SickKids), Toronto, Canada, will be further expanded.

The new expansion of the hospital also includes the addition of 50 new beds for women, three new digital operating rooms, and 10 additional delivery rooms.


According to a report by Alpen Capital, the healthcare market in Kuwait is projected to reach US$ 5.8 billion in 2022, registering a CAGR of 3.4% from 2020. Given the growing size of the healthcare market, the country is likely to witness a requirement of 9,807 beds in 2022, implying an additional demand for over 1,200 beds from 2020.

The Ministry of Health and the Ministry of Public Works announced a US$ 4.42 billion project to replace or expand nine operating hospitals within the next ten years. The goal is to add 5,400 beds, 150 operating rooms, and 500 outpatient clinics to the current 7,095 hospital beds countrywide. Meanwhile, the private healthcare market is estimated to grow by 15 to 20% in the coming years.

New Al Jahra Hospital, Al Jahra

City: Al Jahra
Project Cost: US$ 1 billion
Size: 426,000 sqm (main building)
Beds: 1,171
Owner: Amiri Diwan and the State of Kuwait
Main Contractor: Mohammed Abdul Mohsin Al Kharafi & Sons (EPC)
Consultants: PACE, e.construct
Project Completion: TBC

The New Al Jahra Hospital in the Al Jahra area of Kuwait is a full-service general secondary care public hospital, offering a selection of specialised services along with the infrastructure to accommodate select tertiary care capabilities. The 1,171 bed capacity hospital includes three VIP suites, 156 women’s beds, 98 NICU beds, 168 paediatrics beds and 749 adult beds. The main building is made up of a basement level, ground floor and 14 additional floors with a total built-up area of 426,000 sqm. The built up area also includes a dental services building housing over 104 clinics, an administration building, public car parking with 2,900 spaces and a power plant.

Major departments include: accident and emergency and separate adult and paediatric treatment areas; 135 outpatient clinics; outpatient procedures including endoscopy, pulmonary and cardiology; radiology and nuclear medicine; same day
medical observation unit; a modern surgical suite with 20 OR’s including two hybrid rooms; a women’s centre including women’s surgery, infertility clinic and outpatient services, NICU and special care nurseries, women’s surgery. Inpatient beds include adult, paediatric and women’s centre beds as well as 12 unique ICU bed units, 115 dentistry clinics spanning 29,000 sqm.

Farwaniya Hospital Expansion, Kuwait City

City: Kuwait City
Project Cost: US$ 928 million
Size: N/A
Beds: Additional 955
Owner: Ministry of Health, Kuwait Health Assurance Company (KHAC)
Main Contractor: Sayyed Hameed Behbehani & Sons
Consultant: KEO International Consultants
Project Completion: TBC

The Al Farwaniya Hospital expansion is part of the National Healthcare Expansion Plan by the Ministry of Health (MoH) of the State of Kuwait. The additional 955 beds in the new hospital will represent a 17% increase in the total number of hospital beds in all of Kuwait. The dental facility will include 157 clinics, and the car park will accommodate 1,400 cars in a multi-storey car park. The Al Farwaniya Hospital expansion project will include a new state-of-the-art hospital, an outpatient clinic for dermatology and physical therapy, a dental treatment and teaching facility, and a services building.

The project includes:

  • New Hospital (HSP)
  • Dermatology Outpatient Clinics (OP)
  • Dental Clinic (DC)
  • Services Building (SB)
  • Multistory Car park building (CP)

Al Adnan Hospital Expansion, Kuwait

City: Mubarak Al-Kabeer
Project Cost: US$ 588 million
Size: 471,103 sqm (built up area)
Beds: Additional 632
Owner: Ministry of Health, Kuwait Health Assurance Company (KHAC)
Main Contractor: Sayyed Hamid Behbehami & Sons Co
Consultant: SSH, Dar International Engineering Consultants, PACE, Hill International –
System Development and Project management (SDPM)
Project Completion: TBC

Initiated by the Kuwait Ministry of Health (MoH) as part of the Kuwait National Healthcare Development Plan, the expansion of the Al Adan Hospital will provide 632 beds over 14 floors.

It will offer new maternity and paediatrics healthcare facilities including associated supporting facilities, a general surgical unit, same-day surgery, nutrition and dietetics, adult and paediatrics physiotherapy and rehabilitation unit, hospital administration and a multi-storey car park. The main hospital has a clinical podium housing a large entrance atrium, clinics
and acute services with three upper ward towers providing identity and scale to the development.

The project includes:

  • Women & Children Hospital
  • Surgical & C.S. Building
  • Physical Therapy & Rehab. Building
  • Health Region Admin. Building
  • Strategic Stores
  • Emergency Car Park
  • P.T. Rehab. Car Park Building

Kuwait Cancer Control Center Expansion, Kuwait City

City: Kuwait City
Project Cost: US$ 596 million
Size: 200,000 sqm
Beds: Additional 618
Owner: Ministry of Health, Kuwait Health Assurance Company
Main Contractor: Alghanim International General Trading & Contracting Company W.L.L
Consultant: PACE, NBBJ, Gulf Consult
Project Completion: TBC

The Kuwait Control Centre for Cancer, located in Al Sabah Medical District, Kuwait City, is an expansion project by the Ministry of Health and the Kuwait Health Assurance Company (KHAC). According to ProTenders, the new 618 bed, the 12-storey building includes all relevant departments essential to a state-of-the-art cancer treatment facility including radiology, surgery, laboratories, pharmacy, physiotherapy, and psychology clinics.

The building also incorporates inpatient and outpatient facilities. The outpatient functions are zoned in the west building, closest to the building entry and the 2,000 car-parking garages for easy access. Horizontal connections allow direct access to imaging and interventional functions in the east building. Inpatient beds are located in the east side of the building.

Sabah General Hospital Expansion, Al Sabah

City: Al Sabah
Project Cost: US$ 617 million
Size: 265,000 sqm
Beds: Additional 617
Owner: Ministry of Health, Kuwait Health Assurance Company (KHAC)
Main Contractor: Shapoorji Pallonji & Co. Ltd.
Consultant: SSH, TRO Jung Brannen, e.construct
Project Completion: July 2020

Al Sabah Hospital is to act as a general secondary care facility providing general and specialised clinical services. It will also support the Al Amiri Hospital in providing general secondary care services to the residents of Capital Governorate. According to the Kuwait Times, the project comprises of a main building with a basement, a ground floor and 12 floors with a 512 bed capacity, in addition to 105 ICU beds.

The hospital will also include casualty, radiology, general surgery, specialised surgery, nuclear medicine, physiotherapy and respiratory departments, in addition to 72 OPDs, pharmacies, reception, labs, storage areas and a heliport. The hospital administration building comprises of eight floors and that the nuclear medicine department would be equipped with state-of-the art waste processing technology.

Saudi Arabia

From an estimated US$ 44.3 billion in 2020, health expenditure in Saudi Arabia is projected to grow at a CAGR of 6.1% to US$ 59.5 billion in 2022, according to Alpen Capital. The growth is likely to be driven by a CAGR of 2.0% in the population, rise in the cost of treatment and increase in health insurance coverage.

According to the latest figures from Aon Hewitt, the Ministry of Health is expected to spend close to US$ 71 billion in the five-years ending in 2020. Meanwhile, research from Knight Frank indicates that to keep pace with population growth, Saudi Arabia would require an additional 5,000 beds by 2020 and 20,000 beds by 2035, based on the current density of beds. Based on the global average of bed density, Saudi Arabia faced a gap of 14,000 beds in 2020, and this gap is
expected to widen to 40,000 beds by 2035

King Abdullah Bin Abdulaziz Medical Complexes – Riyadh & Jeddah

City: Riyadh & Jeddah
Project Cost: US$ 6.8 billion
Size: 1.1 million sqm each
Beds: 1,500+ each
Owner: Ministry of Interior
Main Contractors: ABV Rock Group (Riyadh), Saudi Binladin Group (Jeddah)
Project Completion: TBC

The King Abdullah Bin Abdulaziz 1.300 km2 megaproject for the development of Security Forces Medical Complexes is Saudi Arabia’s largest healthcare project, and also the largest medical project in the GCC. Two separate medical cities for security forces are being developed in Riyadh and Jeddah on behalf of the Kingdom’s Interior Ministry.

According to Construction Week, as of 13 February 2020, construction work is underway on Jeddah Security Forces Medical City, for which ABV Rock Group is working as the main contractor. The company is also working in a similar role on Riyadh Security Forces Medical City. The Riyadh Security Forces Medical City includes three hospital buildings, an academic and clinical centre, research areas, a specialist hospital for mental health, and a gynaecology and obstetrics hospital. The website places progress on the 1,700 bed facility at 87%.

Meanwhile, Jeddah Security Forces Medical City will feature 1,864 beds and includes similar health facilities as its Riyadh counterpart. Tahpi and Hyundai Elevator were named among the list of participants for the project, which according to ProTenders, was 74% complete as of 13 February 2020.

King Khalid Medical City, Dammam

: Dammam
Project Cost: US$ 1.27 billion
Size: 700,000 sqm
Beds: 1,500
Owner: Ministry of Health, King Khaled Mega Project Management Office
Main Contractor: Vanir Construction Management
Consultant: AECOM
Project Completion: Est. 2020

The 1,500 bed hospital project, managed by the King Khaled Mega Project Management Office on behalf of the Ministry of Health will include a research centre, staff accommodation, conference centre, mosque, administrative building, car
parking structures and community centre. The hospital includes centres of excellence in cardiovascular, neurosciences, rehabilitation, multi-neurosciences, rehabilitation, multi-organ transplant, genetic organ transplant, genetic & metabolics, ophthalmology, and oncology.

King Faisal Medical City, Asir

: Asir
Project Cost: US$ 1.06 billion
Size: 2.2 million sqm
Beds: 1,350 beds in 2 phases
Owner: Ministry of Health
Main Contractor: Al-Fouzan Trading & General Construction (Phase 1)
Consultant: Zuhair Fayez Partnership (Phase 1) HDR
Project Completion: 2021

The 1,350 bed King Faisal Medical City in Abha will be fully operational by 2021, according to an official statement published in Saudi Gazette newspaper. The project will be implemented in phases. Construction works on the first phase involves the construction of the main hospital building, which is currently underway. The main hospital at King Faisal Medical City will comprise 500 beds with another 850 beds distributed across five specialty hospitals: cardiology, oncology, ophthalmology, neurology and rehabilitation.

According to ProTenders, the scope of work for Phase 2 includes 100 bed Ophthalmology Centre, 200 bed Cardiology Centre, 150 bed Neurology Centre, 200 bed Oncology Centre, 200 bed Rehabilitation Center, 200 bed outpatient clinic,
administrative building, accommodation building and facilities centre. Scope of work also includes underground parking, convention centre, hotel, utilities, road and related infrastructure works.

Medical City for Rehabilitation and Treatment, Riyadh
Project Cost: US$ 346.6 million
Size: 1.2 million sqm
Beds: 1,100
Owner: Ministry of Health, Private Hospitals Association (PHA) in Jordan
Main Contractor: TBC
Project Completion: TBC

According to Arab News, Saudi Arabia and Jordan will co-build the medical city for rehabilitation and treatment in Riyadh. The complex will comprise a 600 bed hospital specialised in the treatment and therapy of physical disabilities, a 250 bed public health hospital, and a 250 bed hospital for healthcare and convalescing patients.

It will also include a hotel with 120 beds and 12 suites, 223 tourist villas, 152 hotel villas, 448 furnished apartments distributed among 56 buildings, a commercial mall, recreation and gym centres, gardens and mosques. A medical faculty specialised in rehabilitation therapy will also be established in the compound, in addition to watertreatment and electricity-generation stations. The project is expected to generate more than 3,000 jobs and serve more than 170,000 patients a year.

King Fahad Medical City Expansion, Riyadh

City: Riyadh
Project Cost: US$14 billion
Size: 1.2 million square foot
Beds: 600
Owner: Ministry of Health
Project Stakeholders: TPE Consulting Engineers and Rider Levett Bucknall
Project Completion: TBC

According to ProTenders, King Fahad Medical City is located in the heart of Riyadh and is considered the largest and most advanced medical complex in the Middle East. The project involves expansion of a 1,395 bed medical campus by addition of 231 beds, a state-of-the-art cancer and proton beam therapy centre in an area of 473,000 square feet, a 316 bed neuroscience institute in an area of 368,000 square feet, a 48 bed cardiovascular centre in an area of 120,000 square feet, a six-storey laboratory and office building (243,400 square feet) and a 60,000 square foot central energy plant.

Saudi German Hospital, Damman
City: Damman
Project Cost: US$ 90 million
Size: 39,000 sqm
Beds: 300
Owner: Middle East Healthcare Company
Project Participants: International Hospital Construction Co (IHCC)
Project Completion: Q2 2020

Once complete, the Saudi German Hospital in Damman will cover an area of 39,000 sqm, with eight operating rooms and potential capacity of up to 300 beds and 100 clinics. International Hospital Construction Co (IHCC) was awarded deals to build Saudi German Hospital’s facilities in Dammam, as well as Makkah. Construction on the healthcare facility started on 7 December 2020, and its completion is due in June 2020.


According to 2020 statistics from the World Health Organization (WHO), the most recent data available, health expenditure accounts for 5.6% of Egypt’s gross domestic product (GDP).

Meanwhile, Colliers International has reported that the demand for healthcare services is expected to grow continuously and, in order to reach 76,000 new beds by 2020, Egypt will require a further investment of US$ 16 – 21 billion. The demand is expected to reach to up to 178,000 new beds requiring an investment of US$ 38 – 60 billion by 2050.

New National Cancer Institute, Giza

: Giza
Project Cost: N/A
Size: 500,000 sqm
Beds: 1,000
Owner: National Cancer Institute (NCI)
Main Contractor: Skidmore, Owings & Merrill LLP (SOM)
Consultants: Hill International
Project Completion: Anticipated 2020

Located in Sheikh Zayed City, Giza, the 500,000 sqm New National Cancer Institute campus will become the largest comprehensive cancer centre in the region. When complete, the medical campus will consist of a 1000 bed hospital with an
extensive outpatient centre. It will also include a specialised nursing institute, hotel and housing, and facilities for research, training, faculty and conferences. The project is targeting LEED Gold and is designed to US medical planning standards.

Children’s Cancer Hospital Egypt 57357 Extension, Cairo

City: Cairo
Project Cost: US$ 200 million
Size: 215,660 sqm
Beds: 300 (total bed capacity)
Owner: Association of Friends of National Cancer Institute (AFNCI)
Main Contractor: Arabian Construction Co. (ACC)
Consultants: Callision RTKL Dubai, Al Amar Consulting Group
Project Completion: 2020

Children’s Cancer Hospital Egypt 57357 is one of the largest children’s cancer hospitals in the world.

The extension of the existing hospital complex covers the construction of four phases comprising of the following projects/buildings:

  • Outpatient Center: A 16-level building with a total built-up area of 85,150 sqm. It will include 100 clinics, 250 Medical Oncology Infusion Stations, a Radiation Oncology Center and an Outpatient Radiology Center.
  • Smart Building: An 18-level administrative building that will become the technologically advanced home for CCHF and 57357’s administrative department.
  • Health Sciences Academy: The new Health Sciences Academy will provide advanced, transformational education and training to CCHE staff and students from the MENA region.

Batterjee Medical City, Alexandria

City: Alexandria
Project Cost: US$ 500 million
Size: N/A
Beds: 300
Owner: Middle East Healthcare Company
Consultant: N/A
Project Completion: Q4 2020

Having laid its foundation stone back in October 2020, the Batterjee Medical City complex in Alex West residential compounds estate will be developed in four phases. The first phase consists of a 300 bed general hospital and staff accommodation. Phase two consists of seven sub-specialty hospitals and staff accommodation, while phase three consists of Medical Tower with 220 clinics and phase four consists of a medical college with all its related facilities. Saudi German Hospital will operate the hospital development.

The Global Hospital, Alexandria

City: Alexandria
Project Cost: US$ 72 million
Size: 37,000 sqm
Beds: 192
Owner: The Global Hospital Co.
Consultant: Engineering Consultants Group (ECG)/ Navmatica
Project Completion: TBC

The 192 bed Global Hospital, located in Green Towers Compound in Smouha, Alexandria, comprises a basement and three-floor podium serving the two hospital towers. The North Tower comprises outpatients departments and the South Tower is
made up of 64 intensive care units (ICU) and 156 inpatient wards. The hospital will contain oversized operation rooms and advanced diagnostic centres for laboratory work and radiology. There will be 13 integrated, specialised medical centres, which will act as a single unit. The Global Hospital will also have ambulatory and acute services with a trauma centre
and resuscitation rooms, as well as post-operative and general intensive care units.


According to a report by Alpen Capital, health expenditure in Bahrain is anticipated at US$ 2.4 billion in 2022, signifying a CAGR of 5.1% from an estimated US$ 1.8 billion in 2020. The growing size of the population, proposed mandatory health insurance, lifestyle ailments and the rising cost of care are the factors aiding growth.

The country’s hospital bed requirement is projected at 2,979 in 2022, suggesting annual average growth of 2.0% from 2020. The liberalisation of the sector, with foreign companies being allowed to own 100% in private healthcare facilities, will lend a push to the development of the industry.

King Abdullah Bin Abdulaziz Medical City, Durrat Al Bahrain

City: Durrat Al Bahrain
Project Cost: US$ 1 billion
Size: 1 million sqm
Beds: 264 (Phase 1), 500 on completion
Owner: Bahrain Ministry of Health
Contractor: TBC
Project Completion: Q1 2021

The King Abdullah Medical City in Durrat Al Bahrain is funded through a US$ 267 million grant from the late King Abdulla bin Abdulaziz Al Saud of Saudi Arabia and will be built on a 1 million sqm plot donated by His Majesty King Hamad at Durrat Al Bahrain. The city, run by Arabian Gulf University, is part of a public hospitals system in cooperation with healthcare institutions such as Supreme Council of Health and National Health Regulatory Authority.

Phase 1 construction, which includes an eight-storey educational hospital with the capacity of 288 beds; a three-storey outpatient clinic; and a building that will provide clinical services that include operating theatres, a morgue, and restaurants. Phase 2 will see the hospital bed capacity increase to over 500 beds complete with academic school, research facility, medical hotel, rehabilitation hospital, and on-site accommodation for both students and staff.

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Infrastructure work on the Saudi-funded King Abdullah bin Abdulaziz Medical City in Bahrain is being split into four phases, according to the Construction Week website, with construction on the project’s Academic Medical Centre expected to complete within 24 months.

The start of the infrastructure works coincides with the construction of the development’s Academic Medical Centre. Its construction is expected to receive patients in the first months of 2021.

Muharraq Hospital Complex, Muharraq

City: Muharraq
Project Cost: US$ 81.7 million
Size: TBC
Beds: 210
Developer: Bahrain Ministry of Municipalities Affairs & Urban Planning
Contractor: Saleh Abdullah Al-Mahana (long-stay care centre)
Project Completion: 2020 (Phase 1)

The three-in-one hospital complex in Muharraq will be delivered in three phases:

Phase 1 includes a long-stay care centre with the capacity to accommodate 100 beds and will be constructed to provide care for patients in need of admission at the care centre for long periods;

Phase 2 will see the setting up of a maternity hospital with 110 beds; while the final phase,

Phase 3 will include the construction of a US $4.5 million 800 sqm multiple sclerosis centre with the 100 bed which is set to be completed by mid-2020.

Phase 1 is set to cost US$ 30 million. Construction began in Q3 2020 and is expected to last approximately two years, according to the Bahrain News Agency. The project belongs to the Ministry of Health and is being financed by the Saudi Fund for Development, following a 2020 agreement between the Kingdom of Bahrain and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Mohammed Bin Khalifa Cardiac Hospital, Awali

City: Awali
Project Cost: US$ 106 million
Size: 44,000 sqm
Beds: 150
Owner: Supreme Council of Health Development
Main Contractor: Mohamed Abdulmohsin Al Kharafi and Sons Company
Consultant: WS Atkins & Partners Overseas
Project Completion: TBC

According to ProTenders, the project’s scope of work consist of a seven-storey, 150 bed capacity hospital complex that will cover an area of 44,000 square meters building located in Awali.

Scope of work includes an outpatient’s clinic, an emergency ward for chest diseases, paediatric ward and other medical facilities. It will also have cardiac theatres in which two will cater to major heart operations and one common theatre for cardiac catheterisation. The hospital will be associated with the existing Mohammed bin Khalifa Cardiac Centre at the BDF Hospital in Riffa and will be planned and executed under the direct supervision of the Bahrain Defence Force General Command. The centre, featuring 150 beds, operating theatres, an emergency unit and laboratories, among other facilities, will be built on a 44,000 sqm plot of land with US$ 42 million allocated to provide medical equipment and other furniture. The Abu Dhabi Fund for Development also helped finance and support the project.

From an estimated US$ 3.2 billion in 2020, current healthcare expenditure in Oman is expected to grow at a CAGR of 9.1% to US$ 4.9 billion in 2022, according to a report published by Alpen Capital. To accommodate the growing base of patients, the bed requirement in Oman is anticipated to grow at a CAGR of 3.2% through to 2022, translating into a demand for more than 1,100 new beds to reach a capacity of 7,937 beds.

Sultan Qaboos Medical City Complex, Barka

City: Barka
Project Cost: US$ 1.5 billion
Size: 5 million sqm
Beds: 2,000
Owner: Ministry of Health, Muscat National Development and
Investment Company (Tatweer)
Main Contractor: TBC
Project Completion: 2021

The 2,000 bed Sultan Qaboos Medical City Complex in Barka will have five highly specialised hospitals for general medicine, trauma, paediatrics, head and neck ailments and organ transplant. It will also have diagnostic and rehabilitation centre,
a laboratory and a central imaging building. A university research centre, other development centres and a Medical Education City are currently being planned as part of the project.

Once operational, the new Medical City is expected to work side by side with the Sultan Qaboos University (SQU) facilitating the necessary research and development facilities to the students.

Covering a total area of five million sqm, the Medical City is also envisaged to house shopping, hospitality, leisure, residential and leisure developments promoted by the private sector.

The government is billed to enlist private local and international partners in the development, management and operation of the medical complex — potentially the first PPP model for Oman outside of the utilities sector.

International Medical City, Salalah

City: Salalah
Project Cost: US$ 1 billion
Size: 800,000 sqm
Beds: 800
Owner: Apex Medical Group (AMG), Subsidiary of Saudi Arabias Al Joaib Group
Main Contractor: TBC
Consultant: Atkins, PSOMAS
Project Completion: TBC

The International Medical City in Salalah is being developed by Apex Medical Group, a subsidiary of Saudi Arabia’s Al Joaib Group, which has invested around US$1 billion in the project. The project’s scope of work consists of a regional multi-specialty organ transplant and rehabilitation hospital.

Built around a main hospital, Medical City will also include a luxury hotel, spa, educational and training facilities for doctors and nurses and a wellbeing centre, alongside accommodation, commercial and service facilities for visitors and resident.

The construction of phases includes:

Интрига под названием «Сауди Арамко»

Считается, что крупнейшей в мире нефтяной компанией является Saudi Aramco, которая базируется в Саудовской Аравии.

Примечательно, что Saudi Aramco не «прозрачна», поскольку не публикует таких финансовых показателей, как прибыль, обороты, активы и рыночная капитализация. Поэтому не представлена в рейтингах крупнейших мировых нефтедобывающих компаний, где, как известно, первые строчки занимают американские ExxonMobil и Chevron, китайские Sinopec и PetroChina, англо-голландская Royal Dutch Shell, британская BP, французская Total. Однако все прекрасно понимают, что эти лидеры мирового нефтяного бизнеса – лилипуты на фоне саудовского Гулливера.

Saudi Aramco принадлежит более 100 нефтяных и нефтегазовых месторождений в Саудовской Аравии с запасами, составляющими около четверти мировых разведанных запасов углеводородов. По объёмам добычи компании есть лишь обрывочные данные за некоторые годы. Так, в 2020 году Saudi Aramco добыла 3,4 млрд баррелей сырой нефти (примерно 11% мировой добычи).

Годовая добыча нефти и газа в едином эквиваленте, по оценкам экспертов, у саудовской компании примерно в два раза больше, чем у крупнейшей американской компании Exxon Mobil. У Saudi Aramco есть филиалы, совместные предприятия и дочерние компании в Китае, Японии, на Филиппинах, в Республике Корея, Сингапуре, ОАЭ, США и Великобритании. Имеется флот супертанкеров. Коль Saudi Aramco не «прозрачна», то она и не является публичной и на фондовом рынке не представлена.

История нефтяного гиганта восходит к 1933 году, когда в результате концессионного соглашения правительства Саудовской Аравии с американской компанией Standard Oil of California возникла компания California-Arabian Standard Oil Company; с 1944 года компания стала называться Arabian American Oil Company.

В 1950 году саудовский король Абдель Азиз ибн Сауд пригрозил национализировать нефть в стране, вынудив тем самым американского партнёра согласиться на раздел прибыли 50:50. Штаб-квартира компании была перенесена из Нью-Йорка в Саудовскую Аравию (Дахран). В 1973 году, после американской поддержки Израиля в ходе Войны Судного дня, правительство Саудовской Аравии приобрело 25% акций компании, увеличив к 1974 году свою долю до 60%.

Наконец, к 1980 году участие правительства Саудовской Аравии в капитале достигло 100%. В ноябре 1988 года компании было дано нынешнее название Saudi Aramco (полное официальное название – Saudi Arabian Oil Company).

Если Saudi Aramco занимает ведущие позиции в мировой нефтяной промышленности, то в самой Саудовской Аравии эта компания составляет 90% всей национальной экономики. До последнего времени 90% прибыли компании направлялись в государственный бюджет.

На протяжении многих десятилетий Саудовская Аравия была одним из самых надежных союзников Вашингтона на Ближнем Востоке. Особенно после того, когда в середине 1970-х гг. тогдашний государственный секретарь США Генри Киссинджер договорился с саудовским королем о том, что Саудовская Аравия будет продавать «черное золото» исключительно за доллары США.

А Вашингтон в обмен на это обещал поставки оружия и военно-политическую поддержку, а также гарантии того, что стратегический союзник Вашингтона Израиль не будет проводить агрессивной и даже недружественной политики в отношении Эр-Рияда.

Статус-кво Саудовской Аравии поколебался осенью 2020 года. Конгресс США принял закон, дающий право родственникам жертв нью-йоркских терактов 11 сентября 2001 года подавать в суд на правительство Саудовской Аравии и требовать от него компенсаций. Основанием для принятия закона было якобы то обстоятельство, что большинство исполнителей терактов являлись саудовскими гражданами.

Против был президент Обама, который пытался наложить вето на закон, однако Конгресс сумел преодолеть его. Конечно, были гораздо более серьезные причины для охлаждения отношений между Вашингтоном и Эр-Риядом. Но это тема отдельного серьезного разговора.

Как бы там ни было, но начался «обмен любезностями» между Эр-Риядом и Вашингтоном. Дело дошло даже до того, что Вашингтон пригрозил заморозить активы саудовского происхождения, которые находились в США, в случае, если Эр-Рияд откажется от выплат. Цена вопроса высокая: представители саудовской правящей династии в США владеют вложениями в размере 750 млрд долл.

Обострение отношений с Вашингтоном привело к ухудшению экономического положения Саудовской Аравии. В частности, в 2020 г. объем экспорта из Саудовской Аравии в США уменьшился почти на четверть (на 23,4%). На этот фактор ухудшения наложился другой, еще более серьезный – длительное пребывание мировых цен на «черное золото» на крайне низком уровне.

Хотя Саудовская Аравия имела хороший «запас прочности» для противостояния низким ценам, но и этот запас стал иссякать. Например, в 2020 году бюджетная «дыра» (дефицит государственного бюджета) составила 90 млрд долл. В 2020 году показатель относительного уровня бюджетного дефицита был равен 15% ВВП, в 2020 г. – 13%, в 2020 г. – почти 9%. По относительной величине бюджетных «дыр» Саудовская Аравия стала чуть ли не мировым рекордсменом. Разве что в неблагополучной Венесуэле «дыры» бюджета больше.

И вот когда у Эр-Рияда завершился длительный период экономического процветания, саудовские правители впервые за долгие годы задумались о том, как дальше жить. В краткосрочной перспективе – где взять денег для того, чтобы закрыть неожиданно возникший дефицит государственного бюджета? В долгосрочной перспективе – как застраховаться от высокой волатильности цен на рынке «черного золота»?

Пришла идея частичной приватизации своей «дойной коровы» под названием Saudi Aramco для того, чтобы выручить хорошие деньги. И за их счет закрыть «дыры» бюджета. Но главное – провести радикальную перестройку экономики, которая позволила бы Саудовской Аравии ликвидировать почти фатальную зависимость от нефти, создать новые отрасли и производства.

Контуры проекта стали складываться еще в 2020 году. Было решено, что в Саудовской Аравии будет создан крупнейший в мире суверенный фонд с капиталом около 2 трлн долл., за счет которого будет производиться финансирование программы структурной перестройки саудовской экономики. Указанная программа начала готовиться в 2020 году.

Фото: Anton Watman/

В апреле 2020 г. прошло широко разрекламированное в Саудовской Аравии заседание возглавляемого королем Сальманом бен Абдель Азизом Кабинета министров, на котором эта программа была принята. Она получила название «Видение – 2030». Как следует из названия документа, структурная перестройка саудовской экономики должна завершиться к 2030 году.

Источником капитализации фонда должны стать деньги, вырученные от приватизации Saudi Aramco. Приватизация должна проводиться постепенно, поэтапно. С тем, чтобы получать максимальный финансовый эффект. При этом приватизация должна по возможности синхронизироваться с ходом реализации программы «Видение – 2030».

О полной приватизации речь не шла. Доля участия в капитале компании в конечном счете должна быть понижена до 50% плюс 1 акция. В январе 2020 года было официально объявлено, что для начала на продажу будет выставлено примерно 5% капитала компании. В СМИ получила хождение цифра возможной капитализации всей саудовской компании – 2 трлн долл. (экспертная оценка). Таким образом, выручка от первого этапа приватизации оценивалась в 100 млрд долл.

Видимо, запланированная операция рассматривалась Эр-Риядом как пробный шаг. Очевидно, что вырученных денег для капитализации суверенного фонда и финансирования программы было недостаточно, с их помощью можно было лишь сбалансировать государственный бюджет.

Площадка для проведения операции по первичному размещению бумаг (IPO) Saudi Aramco на тот момент еще была неизвестна. Планировалось, что в течение 2020 года биржа для проведения листинга будет определена. А сама операция будет осуществлена в 2020 году.

Однако в прошлом году дату проведения IPO несколько раз откладывали, наконец, было решено осуществить ее в 2020 году. Вокруг планов приватизации Saudi Aramco завязалась самая настоящая интрига. Появилось бесчисленное количество версий того, почему операция раз от раза переносится.

Одна из банальных причин того, почему Эр-Рияд перестал форсировать приватизацию своего нефтяного гиганта заключается в том, что цены на «черное золото» на мировом рынке пошли вверх. Сегодня они более чем в два раза превышают тот уровень, который был на момент зарождения идеи приватизации в 2020 году.

Другая часто фигурирующая в СМИ причина заключается в том, что, мол, цифра предполагаемой капитализации Saudi Aramco в 2 трлн долл. оказалась сверхоптимистичной. Что на самом деле «красная цена» компании никак не выше 1 трлн долл. Правда, такие заниженные оценки делались и делаются западными экспертами. И есть подозрение, что они выполняют «социальный заказ» тех, кто по тем или иным причинам ведет игру «на понижение». А если цена компании действительно ниже 1 трлн долл., то для Саудовской Аравии «овчинка выделки не стоит».

Первоначально Эр-Рияд рассматривал в качестве потенциальных площадок проведения операции биржи Лондона, Нью-Йорка, Гонконга. Кажется, пообщавшись более плотно с консультантами, которые прорабатывали вопросы подготовки IPO, саудовские чиновники поняли, что на всех фондовых биржах требуют такой «прозрачности» со стороны участника операции, на которую они идти не готовы. В отличие от «цивилизованных» представителей Запада, консервативные саудиты не готовы раздеваться до трусов. Пробовали они проработать вариант проведения операции на собственной бирже, но есть опасения, что серьезные инвесторы не пойдут на мало им известную площадку.

Список причин переносов приватизации можно продолжать еще очень долго. Серьезный анализ каждой из них заслуживает отдельной статьи. В марте нынешнего года лондонская Financial Times познакомила читателей с небольшой сенсацией: в 2020 году приватизационная сделка вообще не состоится. Срок сдвигается на первую половину 2020 года из-за «сложностей в поиске инвесторов» и «неожиданных правовых рисков».

А вот сенсация более серьезная: 6 июля 2020 г. авторитетное американское издание The Wall Street Journal со ссылкой на саудовских чиновников и источники, знакомые с ситуацией, сообщило, что есть сомнения в том, что первичное публичное размещение акций Saudi Aramco вообще произойдет. Я не думаю, что это информационная «утка». Будь я на месте саудовских шейхов, точно отказался бы от IPO. Цена выручки от реализации 5% капитала оказывается слишком высокой: компания, а в конечном счете и вся Саудовская Аравия, попадет под влияние мировых махинаторов с их «инвестиционными рейтингами», «аудитами», «биржевыми котировками» и т.п.

Также появились альтернативные источники пополнения казны. Это не только дополнительные миллиарды долларов от роста цен на «черное золото». Саудовская Аравия также наладила размещение на мировом рынке бумаг суверенного долга (первые размещения были не очень удачные, сейчас дела пошли лучше). Наконец, была разработана и начала реализовываться программа приватизации иных (помимо Saudi Aramco) активов.

Речь идет о приватизационной программе правительства, которая предусматривает привлечение к 2020 г. 35–40 млрд риалов (около 10 млрд. долл. США) путем продажи спортивных клубов, мукомольных комбинатов и водоопреснительного завода, некоторых других объектов. Понятно, что выручка скромная на фоне астрономических сумм Saudi Aramco. Но, видимо, Эр-Рияд решил «потренироваться» на мелких объектах.

Хотя публичное размещение акций Saudi Aramco сегодня стало весьма проблематичным, продажа «кусочка» саудовского нефтяного гиганта может все-таки состояться. Никакого противоречия тут нет. Интригу вокруг Saudi Aramco следует обязательно рассматривать с учетом «китайского фактора». До недавнего времени Саудовская Аравия была главным поставщиком нефти на китайский рынок (недавно она отошла на второе место, уступив лидерство России). Поддержание стабильных отношений с Пекином для Эр-Рияда сегодня не менее важно, чем с Вашингтоном. Уже на протяжении по крайней мере двух лет Пекин играет на этой заинтересованности Эр-Рияда.

Во-первых, Пекин настаивает на том, чтобы поставки саудовской нефти начали оплачиваться в китайских юанях. Эр-Рияд оказался между молотом и наковальней. Ведь еще в 70-е годы прошлого века он дал клятвенное обещание Вашингтону, что будет продавать «черное золото» только за «зеленую валюту». Эр-Рияд тянет с выполнением условия Пекина, теряя с каждым месяцем «очки» (позиции на китайском рынке нефти). Рано или поздно Эр-Рияду придется согласиться на торговлю в юанях. Он к этому готовится. Причем очень конкретно.

Осенью прошлого года Москву посетил (впервые за всю историю отношений наших стран) саудовский король. Каким ветром принесло саудовского монарха в первопрестольную? За пестрой повесткой переговоров скрывался один главный вопрос, который интересовал короля – зенитно-ракетный комплекс С-400. Им король хотел бы прикрыться от ожидаемого гнева Вашингтона.

Во-вторых, Пекин готов помочь Эр-Рияду в практической реализации плана продажи 5% капитала Saudi Aramco. Он предлагает ему стать покупателем этой доли. Причем без использования таких «предрассудков» и «формальностей» как IPO. То есть путем прямого приобретения. Таким способом Пекин хочет постепенно выдавливать из Саудовской Аравии ее «пожизненного союзника» – США, а также установить более эффективный контроль над поставками «черного золота» на китайский рынок.

С учетом «китайского фактора» непонятные на первый взгляд действия Эр-Рияда вокруг Saudi Aramco приобретают свою логику.

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